|Rank||Nation or Territory||2019|
Causes Greed of money, desires. Higher levels of market and political monopolization. Low levels of democracy, weak civil participation and low political transparency. Higher levels of bureaucracy and inefficient administrative structures. Low press freedom. Low economic freedom.
Forms of corruption vary, but can include bribery, extortion, cronyism, nepotism, parochialism, patronage, influence peddling, graft, and embezzlement. Corruption may facilitate criminal enterprise such as drug trafficking, money laundering, and human trafficking, though it is not restricted to these activities.
Not only does corruption affect economic development in terms of economic efficiency and growth, it also affects equitable distribution of resources across the population, increasing income inequalities, undermining the effectiveness of social welfare programmes and ultimately resulting in lower levels of human
World’s 10 most dangerous countries in 2014
|Rank||Political Risk Atlas||Global Peace Index|
|4||Democratic Republic of Congo||Irak|
Corruption is most serious when the climate in a police department permits the existence of corruption of all kinds. The most common type of police corruption is the acceptance of bribes from those who deal in the vices of gambling, prostitution, illegal drinking, and the illegal use of drugs.
Organisational impacts of corruption financial loss. damage to employee morale. damage to organisation’s reputation. organisational focus and resources diverted away from delivering core business and services to the community. increased scrutiny, oversight and regulation.
Detection mechanisms: auditing and reporting Audits: traditional and blockchain. An important method used to detect corruption in both public and private sector organizations is the auditing process. Self-reporting. Citizen reporting. Journalism and media reporting. Whistle-blowing. Whistle-blowing versus leaking.
Corruption is dishonest behavior by those in positions of power, such as managers or government officials. Corruption can include giving or accepting bribes or inappropriate gifts, double-dealing, under-the-table transactions, manipulating elections, diverting funds, laundering money, and defrauding investors.
The most common types or categories of corruption are supply versus demand corruption , grand versus petty corruption , conventional versus unconventional corruption and public versus private corruption .
The active corruption are: (1) unlawfully self-enrich or another person or a corporation that could harm the financial or economic state, (2) the purpose, abusing authority, opportunity or means of their office or position, (3 ) to give a gift or a promise by considering the power or authority of the office or position
‘It’s a crime ‘: Corruption But it does not just steal money from where it is needed the most; it leads to weak governance, which in turn fuels organized criminal groups and promotes crimes such as human trafficking, arms and migrant smuggling, counterfeiting and the trade in endangered species.
Corruption and growth of GDP Due to the fact that technological advances are primarily driven by investment, this correlation also reveals that corruption can negatively affect total factor productivity. This study shows that a 1% increase in the corruption level means that the growth rate is reduced by about 0.72%.
Among the most common causes of corruption are the political and economic environment, professional ethics and morality and, of course, habits, customs, tradition and demography. Corruption thus inhibits economic growth and affects business operations, employment and investments.
Report corruption expose corrupt activities and risks that may otherwise remain hidden. keep the public sector honest, transparent and accountable. helps stop dishonest practices. ensure that public sector employees act in the public interest.