The tiny Spanish enclaves of Ceuta and Melilla sit on the northern shores of Morocco’s Mediterranean coast. Together they form the European Union’s only land borders with Africa. Madrid asserts that both territories are integral parts of Spain and have the same status as the semi-autonomous regions on its mainland.
march on Fez and settlement with Germany, France was able to sign a Protectorate agreement with Morocco in March 1912 and, after much wrangling, a treaty between Spain and France was completed on 27 November 1912 to establish a Spanish Protectorate.
The Spanish protectorate in Morocco was established on 27 November 1912 by a treaty between France and Spain that converted the Spanish sphere of influence in Morocco into a formal protectorate.
Motivation. Like most imperializing countries, the Spanish and French wanted to colonize Morocco because they wanted power. Feelings of nationalism made people proud of all that their country had achieved. France had already taken control of Algeria, which borders Morocco , and wanted to take over Morocco as well.
Melilla is a safe city to visit, though not unconditionally so. There are always lots of people enjoying the beach, etc. until late; though it is not advisable to travel alone at night, even in the city centre. Street robbery is not an uncommon occurrence for people walking alone at night in Melilla .
For centuries, Ceuta and Melilla were vital port cities, offering protection for Spanish ships and acting as trading posts between Europe and Africa. In the 1930s, Spanish troops garrisoned in the two cities played a major role in future dictator Francisco Franco’s uprising against their government.
Before the advent of colonization and the imposition of the protectorate on Morocco , the country was fully sovereign, independent, and united. And the Sahara was under Moroccan sovereignty. During that era there was no entity whatsoever in the Sahara that was separate from Morocco .
Morocco has long been considered the most Western-oriented society in the Arab world. For Morocco is not an Arab country at all, but a Berber one with a deceptive Arab veneer. Half the Moroccan population speaks Berber, a Hamitic language similar to ancient Libyan with an alphabet that bears no resemblance to Arabic .
Morocco first experienced Christianity while under Roman rule, as the Empire converted to the faith in its later years. Many of the pre -Christian religions were then reduced in number as Christianity spread. However, after the arrival of Islam , Christianity ceased to have a significant population in the country.
On 7 April 1956, France officially relinquished its protectorate in Morocco . The abolition of the Spanish protectorate and the recognition of Moroccan independence by Spain were negotiated separately and made final in the Joint Declaration of April 1956.
Some Moroccans believe themselves to be of mixed Arab-Berber descent or of Arab-Berber-Andalusian ancestry. There are no official figures about the exact ethnic origins of all Moroccans , but the implicitly accepted idea inside and outside Morocco is that Moroccans are essentially mixed Arab-Berbers.